My Maternal Second Great Grandfather~Heinrich Claussen~Hannover, Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany

Market Church in Hanover
Market Church in Hanover (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
The coat of arms of Lower Saxony. Also the for...
The coat of arms of Lower Saxony. Also the former ( – 1947) coat of arms of Land Braunschweig. Keep red shade parallel with File:Flag of Germany.svg’s red shade. A white Saxon steed (Sachsenross) on a red background. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Coat of arms of Hanover
Coat of arms of Hanover (Photo credit: Wikipedia)


Leine at Hannover City

Leine at Hannover City (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

George V of Hanover.
George V of Hanover. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Leine (Photo credit: perldude)
Hanover or Hannover, on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony, Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg. ~~Wikipedia
My Maternal Second Great Grandparents were Heinrich “Henry” and Maria “Mary” (Kobel) Claussen (also spelled Clausen and Classen). Henry emigrated in 1855 to Castle Garden, New York, New York.
Henry was born in February 1827 in Hannover, Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany.
Died in 24 July 1901 in Caledonia, Houston, Minnesota.  
Married in 1859 in Illinois to Maria “Mary” Kobel who was born on 28 March 1827 in Baden, Rheinland-Palatinate, Germany.
She emigrated from Baden, Germany in 1836 to Castle Garden, New York, New York. Settled in Illinois and Minnesota.
Died 7 February 1903 in Caledonia, Houston County, Minnesota.
Burial St. John’s German Lutheran Cemetery, Caledonia, Houston County, Minnesota.
Henry & Mary (Kobel) Claussen had six children: August (Luehrs) Henry’s Step son, Frederick “Fred” H., Minnie, Caroline, Emma Elsie (Palen), and Louisa (Olsen) Claussen .
English: river
English: river “Ihme” in flood ditch in Hanover with flood of the river “Leine”, right in picture the flooded “Leine-Heide-Radweg” (cycleway) Deutsch: Ihme im Flutgraben in Hannover, Hochwasser der Leine führend, rechts im Bild der überflutete Leine-Heide-Radweg (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
 Leineschloss: river frontage

Leineschloss: river frontage (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Hanover or Hannover is situated on the river Leine. It is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen) in Germany. The city is a major center of northern Germany.

A highlight is the New City Hall or New Town Hall which was opened on July 20, 1913, after having been under construction for 12 years. It is a magnificent, castle-like building of the era of William II in eclectic style at the southern edge of the inner city (outside of the historic city center of Hanover). The building is embedded in the 10 hectare Maschpark.

The Old City Hall is no longer used as the main seat of administration, but houses businesses and the registry office.
The dome of the New City Hall, with its observation platform, is nearly 100 m high. The dome’s elevator is unique in Europe, with its arched course (parabolic, following the shape of the dome).

The Marktkirche (‘The Church on the Marketplace’ or Market Church) St. Georg and St. Jakobus (‘St. George and St. James’) is the main Lutheran church in Hanover. It was built in the 14th century and together with the nearby Old Town Hall, is considered the southernmost exemplar of the ‘North German brick gothic’ (Norddeutsche Backsteingotik) architectural style.

Hanover is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony was founded in 1946. The city lies along the line of the estimated 515,000 residents. It belongs to the region of Hanover, a local government association, a special kind, and is part of the metropolitan region of Hanover-Brunswick-Göttingen. Hanover was the capital of the country and in 1866 the Prussian province of the same name. The city is today a globally important fair city. It is located at the intersection of important national and European roads.

             History of Hanover

Hanover was founded in medieval times on the south bank of the river Leine. Its original name Honovere may mean “high (river)bank”, though this is debated (cf. das Hohe Ufer). Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century due to its position at a natural crossroads. As overland travel was relatively difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, and was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of theHarz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the RhineRuhr and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.

In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz mountains, which increased the city’s importance.

In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover. The Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg were elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, and this elevation was confirmed by the Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg’s capital (see also: House of Hanover). Its electors would later become monarchs of Great Britain (and from 1801, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland). The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714. The last British monarch who ruled in Hanover was William IVSalic law, which required succession by the male line, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria in Hanover. As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, however, bore her husband’s titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were at the same time Electoral Princes of Hanover.

During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover (1714–1837), the monarchs rarely visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers (1760–1837), there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover.

During the Seven Years’ War the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought on July 26, 1757, near the city. The French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city’s occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year.